Minggu, 08 Januari 2012

biodata tokoh kemerdekaan indonesia

Bung Hatta

Dr. (H.C.) Drs. H. Mohammad Hatta, who is more popularly known as Bung Hatta, born on August 12, 1902 in Bukittinggi. In this lovely small town of Bung Hatta mother was raised in a family environment. The name given by his parents when born is Muhammad Athar. His father, Haji Mohammad Djamil, died when eight months old Hatta. From his mother, Hatta had a six sisters. He is the boys only. He is a warrior, statesman, and also the first Vice President of Indonesia.
He is a figure who spoke little but more to do. Therefore, the Bung Hatta was not only respected by the people of Indonesia, but also by other nations, especially in an era of struggle for independence. In fact he is more respected and admired for his ability to mobilize the international communities by mastering a foreign language, like Dutch, English, French, and German.
He married at age 42 years with Rahmi who later was awarded three daughters: Meutia, Gemala, and Halides. Bung Hatta died on March 14, 1980 and was buried in the midst of the people, the coachman Land Cemetery, South Jakarta.

Education History

Hatta was born from a family scholars Minangkabau, West Sumatra. He received his primary education at the School of Malays, Bukittinggi, and in the year 1913-1916 to continue her studies in the Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) in Padang. At age 13 years, in fact he had passed the entrance exam to the HBS (high school level) in Batavia (now Jakarta), but his mother wants to stay in Padang Hatta first, considering his young age. Bung Hatta eventually studied at MULO in Padang. New in 1919 he went to Batavia to study at the High School of Commerce "Prins Hendrik School". He completed his studies with very good results, and in 1921, Bung Hatta went to Rotterdam, Holland to study the trade / business in the Netherlands Handelshogeschool (Rotterdam School of Commerce, now Erasmus University). In the Netherlands, he then lived for 11 years.

On date 27 November 1956, Bung Hatta received a honorary degree of Doctor Honoris Causa academic in Legal Studies from the University of Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta. His inaugural address titled "Past and Coming".

History of Struggle

At the age of 15 years, Hatta career as an activist organization, as treasurer Jong Sumatranen Bond (ANN) Branch. In this town of Hatta began accumulating knowledge regarding the development of society and politics, one by reading various newspapers.
Hatta's growing political consciousness for his habit of attending lectures or political meetings. One political figure who became an idol when it is Hatta Abdul Moeis.
Hatta grown sharper since honed his ideas with a variety of readings, experiences as Treasurer ANN Center, talks with leaders of the movement of Minangkabau origin mukim in Batavia, as well as discussions with fellow members of the ANN: Bahder Djohan.
Hatta began to settle in the Netherlands since September 1921. He immediately joined the Indian Association (Indische Vereeniging). At that time, the climate movement has been available in the Indische Vereeniging. Previously, the Indische Vereeniging who stood at no more than 1908 students a meeting ground water origin.
Hatta began his career moving in the Indische Vereeniging in 1922, again, as Treasurer. The appointment took place on February 19, 1922, when a change of management as the Indische Vereeniging. Chairman of the old dr. This study was replaced by Hermen Kartawisastra. Momentum succession at that time had a significant meaning for them in the future, because that's when they decided rename the Indische Vereeniging to Indonesische Vereeniging. Subsequently the name was changed to Indonesian. A choice of a nation full of politically charged. In the same forum, one member of the Indonesische Vereeniging said that from now on we began to build Indonesia and negate the Netherlands Indies or Indie.
In 1927, Hatta joined the League Against Imperialism and Colonialism in the Netherlands, and here he was friendly with the nationalists of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. Activity in this organization led the Dutch government arrested Hatta. Hatta was finally released, after conducting his defense of the famous speech: Indonesia Free.
In 1932 Hatta returned to Indonesia and joined the Indonesian National Education Club, an organization that aims to increase political awareness of the Indonesian people through the training process. The Dutch again captured Hatta, along Soetan Sjahrir, chairman of the Indonesian National Education Club in February 1934. Hatta was exiled to Digul and then to Banda for six years.
In 1945, Hatta was unanimously appointed as Vice President of First Republic, with the Bung Karno, who became president of Indonesia the day after he and Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia's independence. Because of these roles, both called Mr Proclaimers Indonesia.

The Father of Indonesian Cooperative

Mohammad Hatta was a figure who spoke little but more to do. Therefore, the Bung Hatta was not only respected by the people of Indonesia, but also by other nations, especially in an era of struggle for independence. In fact he is more respected and admired for his ability to mobilize the international communities by mastering a foreign language, like Dutch, English, French, and German.
Mohammad Hatta deep attention to the suffering of ordinary people pushed to pioneer the Cooperative Movement which in principle aims to improve the lot of the poor and economically weak groups. Therefore, the Bung Hatta was appointed as the Father of Indonesian Cooperative. This title is given at the Congress Cooperative Indonesia in Bandung on July 17, 1953.
His interest in the cooperative system apparently is due to the influence of his visit to the Scandinavian countries, especially the Danes, in the late 1930s. For Bung Hatta, the cooperative is not a nonmarket institutions in traditional societies. Cooperatives, for him is a self-help institutions of society are weak or small people to be able to control the market. Therefore, the cooperative should be able to work in a market system, by applying the principle of efficiency.
In Indonesia, Bung Hatta advocated the establishment of three types of cooperatives. First, is the consumption cooperatives primarily serve the needs of the workers and employees. Second, is the cooperative production of which is the container of the farmers (including farmers or fishermen). Third, is the credit cooperatives that serve small traders and small entrepreneurs to meet capital requirements.
Bung Hatta was also suggested organizing a small industry and production cooperatives, to meet the needs of raw materials, and marketing. According to the Bung Hatta, the objective of cooperatives is not seeking the maximum profit, but to serve the needs of the container with the participation of economic actors and a small scale. But, this does not mean that the cooperative is identical with the small-scale businesses.

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